Digital age makes an optimal archive possible, universal, rapid distribution of new work. Benefits: equity, better science, reduced costs.
Obstacles: entrenched interests, cultural norms, (not technology).
Features of the optimal digital library: universal accessibility encyclopedia content, full search ability, high utility (minimize copyright restrictions), sustainability.
chartered in 1999, full-text extension of PubMed. But 90% of journals not included, poor compliance with NIH Public Access Policy, copyright limits use, excessive delay before deposition, lack of older volumes for many journals.
improved format and content, universal, rapid, free access, immediate deposition in public library, relief from copyright restrictions, financial sustainability, continued engagement post-publication by scientific communities.
Operating framework: costs and principles of publication in science
Doing science is more expensive than publishing it.
Authors of scientific reports seek an audience, not financial returns.
The public pays for most published research.
Utility improves if available early.
- Authors: prestige, being read, quality, cost.
- Readers: access, configence in quality, prestige, topics.
- Publishers: reputation, sustainability, profit, service.
- Agencies, advocates, taxpayers, libraries, institutions: utility, cost (system).
- Most are neutral with regard to open access.
Public Library of Science
- 2001, advocacy group
- 2002, $9M from Moore Foundation.
- Hired high-end editors.
- 2003, PLoS Biology
- 2004, PLoS Medicine
- Community journals.
- PLoS ONE, experiment in biology and medicine publishing, focus on fast turn-around, reader participation, authors can respond, create dialogue.
Remaining goals: support from funding agencies, acceptance from scientific community, shift existing journals to open access policies, and demonstration that financiing model works.